Arab Weather - Sandstorms are formed as a result of several factors, including the absence of vegetation and drought, as in desert environments, so strong surface winds raise dust and dirt and carry sand with them into the atmosphere, and then atmospheric dust may remain stuck in the air for several days, depending on the prevailing weather conditions But what effects can sand and dust storms have on the weather?
The term sandstorm is used (Sandstorm) often when talking about sandstorms , the desert, especially in the Sahara desert and the desert of the Arabian Peninsula, or places where sand education is to be dominant, so that the wind carries a large amount of sand particles that are flying near the surface, as well as To the tiny particles suspended in the air that obscure vision.
The term storm of dust (Dust storm) is used when flying fine particles and spread over long distances, and affect urban areas.
Dust particles act as condensation nuclei to form warm clouds, and as nuclei for ice formation in cold clouds, and the ability of dust particles to work in this way depends on their size, shape and composition, which in turn depends on the nature of the original soil from which they came and transport processes.
This modification in the composition of clouds and the particles they contain changes their ability to absorb solar radiation, which indirectly affects the energy that reaches the earth's surface, and because of the effect of dust particles on the growth of cloud drops and ice crystals, the amount of precipitation and the location of precipitation are affected.
Airborne dust acts in a similar way to the greenhouse effect, as it absorbs and disperses the solar radiation that enters the atmosphere, reduces the amount that reaches the Earth's surface, and also absorbs long-wave radiation returning from the surface, and dispersing it in all directions.
The ability of dust particles to absorb solar radiation depends on the size, shape, mineral and chemical composition of the particles, as well as on the vertical distribution of dust in the air and the properties of the bottom surface.
Sand and dry dust storms absorb moisture and change the winds, which weaken small hurricanes before they get bigger. An example of this is sandstorms from the Sahara Desert that affect hurricane activity in the Atlantic Ocean.
The desert dust, also known as the desert air layer ( SAL ), prevents tropical activity in the Atlantic Ocean. The desert air layer is warm, dry and dusty air coming from the Sahara Desert in Africa, as these dust waves move off the western coast of Africa during the summer months especially And it moves with the prevailing easterly winds to North America.
Hurricanes need deep tropical humidity to form, and get their energy from the warmth of ocean waters, and the higher the temperature of the water, the greater the energy available and the greater the chance of hurricane formation. However, sand and dust storms absorb some sunlight and reflect some of it, and allow only part of the sun's rays to pass to the ocean surface, and this leads to the water surface and the air above it remaining cool under the warm dust layer, which stabilizes the atmosphere and prevents the formation of hurricanes.
In addition, the prevailing winds that carry the desert air layer across the Atlantic Ocean are relatively strong, these winds in the middle levels of the atmosphere create wind shear, which impedes the evolution of tropical systems.