Arab weather - Some people prefer hot weather and high temperatures in the summer to carry out various activities, but this high temperature can have a bad effect on the health of the human body. Heat that is higher than its average is dangerous for people, especially if it is accompanied by high humidity. During this weather, it may be difficult for the body to adapt to the heat because the body temperature rises faster than the body's ability to eliminate heat.
The higher the temperature, the higher the incidence of heat-related injuries such as heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.
Sun injuries can be prevented with some measures, however heat causes 688 deaths annually in the USA, in addition to 3,300 emergency room admissions. It was found that 28% of people diagnosed with heat stroke in the emergency room died within the following year, and others lost the function of a part of their body.
Physiology of the body's response to heat
Heat stroke results from prolonged exposure to the sun, often accompanied by abstaining from drinking water during this period, which causes dehydration and a defect in the system responsible for controlling body temperature. The body deals with high temperatures through the process of sweating. If the body is exposed to heat for a long time, and the humidity is 60% or more, the sweat cannot evaporate from the human body, which hinders the body's ability to sweat and cool itself, and it cannot adapt to the high heat, then the symptoms of heat exhaustion begin to appear. After that, the body temperature begins to rise, and the brain is affected by this, causing the symptoms of heat stroke.
If the heat index (which is an index that combines temperature and relative humidity) exceeds 90 degrees, then the person is at risk, knowing that direct exposure to sunlight increases the heat index by 15 degrees.
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke
Complications of heat exhaustion include dizziness, headache and fainting. This can be treated by resting, moving to a cool environment, and drinking enough water containing minerals and various elements to replace what the body has lost. Heat exhaustion if left untreated can develop into heat stroke.
Heat stroke is a type of stroke, a medical emergency, and one of the most serious heat injuries, and it requires going to the emergency and first aid immediately.
One of the symptoms of heat stroke is a rise in body temperature of more than 40 degrees Celsius, and sometimes loss of consciousness or coma. Heat stroke causes severe damage to the brain and the rest of the body, and may eventually lead to death. Read
heat stroke symptoms
Heat stroke symptoms include:
- Significant rise in body temperature (>40°C). Read also: What is the normal body temperature
- Little sweating despite the heat.
- Red, hot, dry skin.
- Muscle weakness.
- Vomiting and nausea.
- rapid pulse;
- rapid breathing;
- Behavioral changes and loss of focus.
- convulsions or epileptic fits;
- People most vulnerable to sunstroke
- People most at risk of heat stroke include:
- Seniors over 65 years of age who live in apartments or homes that lack air conditioning.
- Young children under 4 years old.
- Anyone who does not have access to air conditioning.
- Anyone with a chronic disease such as heart, lung, or kidney disease, obesity, weight loss, high blood pressure, diabetes, mental illness, sickle cell trait, alcoholism, sunburn and any conditions that cause fever.
- Some young athletes.
- Some people who take diuretics
- beta blocker drugs
- diet pills
- Anti-epileptic drugs
- blood pressure and heart medications such as vasoconstrictors,
- Psychiatric medications such as antidepressants and antipsychotics
- Illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine
- Anyone who does not drink enough water.
First aid for heat stroke
- When you suspect that someone has heat stroke, the following is recommended:
- Call the country's emergency number (eg 911), or take the casualty to the hospital.
- Moving the patient to a cooler place or shade and loosening clothing.
- Wet the patient's skin with water.
- Put ice cubes on the victim's armpit, thigh, neck, and back. Because these areas are rich in blood vessels close to the skin, and cooling them helps reduce body temperature. Ice can't be used if the casualty is older, a child, chronically ill, or anyone who has heatstroke not while exercising, as doing so can be dangerous.
- Call the hospital emergency room for additional instructions. If the ambulance is late.
Some measures you can take to prevent heat stroke include:
- Wear light, light-coloured, loose-fitting clothing and a wide-brimmed hat.
- Use a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or more.
- Drink extra fluids To prevent dehydration, it's generally recommended to drink at least eight glasses of water or juice every day. Sports fluids can be helpful during heat waves, too. Consult a doctor before increasing fluid intake if the patient suffers from epilepsy, heart, kidney, or liver disease, or if the patient has a problem of fluid retention.
- Take extra precautions when exercising or working outdoors. It is recommended to drink fluids two hours before exercise, during exercise, and after exercise even if the person does not feel thirsty.
- Reschedule or cancel outdoor activities and reschedule them to early morning or after sunset.
- Monitor the color of the urine, if the urine is dark, this is a sign of dehydration and you should make sure to drink enough fluids to keep the urine light in color.
- weighing before and after physical activity; Monitoring lost water loss can help determine how much fluid the body needs to drink.
- Avoid liquids that contain caffeine or alcohol, because drinking them causes the body to lose more fluid.
- Close the blinds during the hottest part of the day and open the windows at night.